|Acid-Base Interactions (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley|
Proton-donor-acceptor theory is used to interpret the experimental behavior of acid-base indicators. Experiments and animation show the effects on indicators of changing acidity. Equilibrium constants of four indicators are determined and the indicators arranged in order of decreasing acid strength. The competition among bases for protons is shown by mixing the indicators and showing that each changes color at different total acidity.
Keywords: CHEM Study; chemical education; science education; Sputnik-era curriculum; acid; base
|Nitric Acid (Second Edition) - CHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley|
Nitric acid acts as an acid in the manufacture of chemical fertilizers; it acts as a base in the manufacture of nitro compounds; it acts as an oxidizing agent in many systems. In making the fertilizer ammonium nitrate from nitric acid, it is necessary to neutralize the acidity of HNO3. This is accomplished by addition of NH3. In nitration reactions, such as the making of nitrobenzene, nitric acid is made to act as a base in the presence of sulfuric acid and forms nitronium ion which is the react...
Keywords: CHEM Study; nitric acid; chemical manufacturing; science education; Sputnik-era education; chemistry; chemical education